Myricetin is a natural dietary flavonoid compound. We evaluated the efficacy of myricetin against intestinal tumorigenesis in adenomatous polyposis coli multiple intestinal neoplasia (APCMin/+) mice. Myricetin was given orally once a day for 12 consecutive weeks. APCMin/+ mice fed with myricetin developed fewer and smaller polyps without any adverse effects. Histopathological analysis showed a decreased number of dysplastic cells and degree of dysplasia in each polyp. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis revealed that myricetin selectively inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in adenomatous polyps. The effects of myricetin were associated with a modulation the GSK-3β and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. ELISA analysis showed a reduced concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and PGE2 in blood, which were elevated in APCMin/+ mice. The effect of myricetin treatment was more prominent in the adenomatous polyps originating in the colon. Further studies showed that myricetin downregulates the phosphorylated p38 MAPK/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways, which may be the mechanisms for the inhibition of adenomatous polyps by myricetin. Taken together, our data show that myricetin inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis through a collection of biological activities. Given these results, we suggest that myricetin could be used preventatively to reduce the risk of developing colon cancers.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has a number of important roles in the cell that are required for optimal functioning of the immune system. These include its essential role as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, enabling the process of oxidative phosphorylation to occur with the concomitant production of ATP, together with its role as a potential lipid-soluble antioxidant, protecting the cell against free radical-induced oxidation. Furthermore, CoQ10 has also been reported to have an anti-inflammatory role via its ability to repress inflammatory gene expression. Recently, CoQ10 has also been reported to play an important function within the lysosome, an organelle central to the immune response. In view of the differing roles CoQ10 plays in the immune system, together with the reported ability of CoQ10 supplementation to improve the functioning of this system, the aim of this article is to review the current literature available on both the role of CoQ10 in human immune function and the effect of CoQ10 supplementation on this system.
Allergic asthma is the most frequent disease of the respiratory tract. The aim of the current experimental and clinical studies was to find new sources of drugs able to control asthmatic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Our experimental studies were focused on efficiency evaluation of substances able to influence activities of ion channels, phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms, substances from the group of polyphenols and NO metabolism modulators during experimentally induced allergic asthma.
In view of the emerging COVID‑19 pandemic caused by SARS‑CoV‑2 virus, the search for potential protective and therapeutic antiviral strategies is of particular and urgent interest. Zinc is known to modulate antiviral and antibacterial immunity and regulate inflammatory response. Despite the lack of clinical data, certain indications suggest that modulation of zinc status may be beneficial in COVID‑19. In vitro experiments demonstrate that Zn2+ possesses antiviral activity through inhibition of SARS‑CoV RNA polymerase. This effect may underlie therapeutic efficiency of chloroquine known to act as zinc ionophore. Indirect evidence also indicates that Zn2+ may decrease the activity of angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), known to be the receptor for SARS‑CoV‑2. Improved antiviral immunity by zinc may also occur through up‑regulation of interferon α production and increasing its antiviral activity. Zinc possesses anti‑inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF‑κB signaling and modulation of regulatory T‑cell functions that may limit the cytokine storm in COVID‑19. Improved Zn status may also reduce the risk of bacterial co‑infection by improving mucociliary clearance and barrier function of the respiratory epithelium, as well as direct antibacterial effects against S. pneumoniae. Zinc status is also tightly associated with risk factors for severe COVID‑19 including ageing, immune deficiency, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, since these are known risk groups for zinc deficiency. Therefore, Zn may possess protective effect as preventive and adjuvant therapy of COVID‑19 through reducing inflammation, improvement of mucociliary clearance, prevention of ventilator‑induced lung injury, modulation of antiviral and antibacterial immunity. However, further clinical and experimental studies are required.
Some studies have suggested that the polyphenolic compounds might reduce the occurrence of asthma symptoms. The aim of our experiments was to evaluate the effects of 21 days of the flavonoid Flavin7 administration on experimentally induced airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. We assessed tracheal smooth muscle reactivity by an in vitro muscle-strip method; changes in airway resistance by an in vivo plethysmographic method; histological picture of tracheal tissue; and the levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interleukin 5 (IL-5) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Histological investigation of tracheal tissue and the concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were used as indices of airway inflammation. Administration of Flavin7 caused a significant decrease of specific airway resistance after histamine nebulization and a decline in tracheal smooth muscle contraction amplitude in response to bronchoconstricting mediators. Flavin7 minimized the degree of inflammation estimated on the basis of eosinophil calculation and IL-4 and IL-5 concentrations. In conclusion, administration of Flavin7 showed bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory effects on allergen-induced airway inflammation.