Aim: To determine whether treatment with the stem cell stimulator Olimpiq® Stem×Cell prevents increase of retinal and renal vascular permeability in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Two groups of Wistar rats were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of Alloxan. The third, the control group, received vehicle alone. One diabetic group received Olimpiq® Stem×Cell treatment for 4 weeks. The permeability of the blood–retinal barrier (BRB) and renal vessels were measured by the extravasation of fluorescein–labeled bovine serum albumin. Results: Six weeks subsequently to Alloxan injection, significantly elevated the tissue fluorescence, the renal vascular leakage and BRB breakdown was demonstrated in the diabetic group, compared to the nondiabetic group. Olimpiq® Stem×Cell treatment significantly reduced the BRB breakdown, tissue fluorescence, and vascular leakage. Conclusion: Olimpiq® Stem×Cell would be a useful choice of treatment for complications associated with increased vascular permeability of diabetes, such as retinopathy or nephropathy.
Chloroquine is a malarial drug first discovered in 1934. It’s still in use for malaria management, although the most common species of malaria-causing organisms are long resistant to it. Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) also has anti-malarial activity, but is much more commonly used to treat certain auto-immune disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Both of these drugs are structurally related to quinine, the famous ‘Jesuit Bark’ (Chinchona spp.) that was the first effective treatment for malaria (and the chemical that gives tonic water its unique flavor). Both pharmaceuticals are long out of patent protection, so generic versions are widely available. Depending on locale, a typical month-long treatment with hydroxychloroquine in the developing world was about US $4.65. Both drugs are on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines.
All quinine-analog drugs have the potential for side effects. Some are mild (diarrhea, nausea, tinnitus) others can be quite serious (inflammation of the retina, anemia, cardiac instability). Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine preferentially collect in the lungs, which helps increase potency with smaller doses. However, part of risk is due to the medications also collecting more in cells with melanin, which include skin and eye cells. Damage to the eyes can be a risk with large doses or extended use as a malaria or autoimmune disease treatment. People with cardiac problems may also be more at risk of adverse cardiac reactions. There is also a significant risk of interactions with other medications when taken simultaneously. Because of this, both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are available only by prescription.
Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have an extensive research basis as antivirals. There are two acknowledged mechanisms by which these drugs exert antiviral effects.