Oligosaccharide and peptidoglycan of Ganoderma lucidum activate the immune response in human mononuclear cells.

forr√°s: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22364151


2014-02-18 10:06:55


The acid-hydrolyzed fragments of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) obtained by Smith degradation were separated by size-exclusion chromatography into two major water-soluble fractions: peptidoglycans (GLPS-SF1) and oligosaccharides (GLPS-SF2). Both fractions induced CD69 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPB-MNCs), and they displayed distinct immunomodulating properties. GLPS-SF1, with a molecular weight of around 20 kDa, were heterogeneous peptidoglycans composed of glucose/mannose (4:1) that exhibited biological activities with Th1 cytokines IL-12, IL-2, TNF-őĪ, and IFN-ő≥ in hPB-MNCs and stimulated macrophage cytokine expression via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. For GLPS-SF2, with a molecular weight of around several kilodaltons, its sugar sequence was elucidated by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as [-őĪ-1,4-Glc-(ő≤-1,4-GlcA)(3)-](n). This oligosaccharide displayed specific immune property with low monocyte induction, greatly stimulated cell activation and proliferation of NK and T cells. This oligosaccharide isolated from G. lucidumpolysaccharides with internal glucuronic acids/glucose repeat unit in a 3:1 ratio may be responsible for the active stimulation of NK and T cells.


Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.

forr√°s: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23557365


2014-02-18 10:03:26


Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing.


Effect of Reishi polysaccharides on human stem/progenitor cells.

forr√°s: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21055951


2014-02-18 09:54:51


The polysaccharide fraction of Ganoderma lucidum (F3) was found to benefit our health in many ways by influencing the activity of tissue stem/progenitor cells. In this study, F3 was found to promote the adipose tissue MSCs' aggregation and chondrosphere formation, with the increase of CAM (N-CAM, I-CAM) expressions and autokine (BMP-2, IL-11, and aggrecan) secretions, in an in vitro chondrogenesis assay. In a stem cell expansion culture, it possesses the thrombopoietin (TPO) and GM-CSF like functions to enhance the survival/renewal abilities of primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs). F3 was found to promote the dendrite growth of blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and the expression of cell adhesion molecules in the formation of immature dendritic cells (DC). On the other hand, F3 exhibited inhibitory effects on blood endothelial progenitor (EPC) colony formation, with concomitant reduction of cell surface endoglin (CD105) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) marker expressions, in the presence of angiogenic factors. A further cytokine array analysis revealed that F3 indeed inhibited the angiogenin synthesis and enhanced IL-1, MCP-1, MIP-1, RANTES, and GRO productions in the blood EPC derivation culture. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the polysaccharide fraction of G. lucidum F3 exhibits cytokine and chemokine like functions which are beneficial to human tissue stem/progenitor cells by modulating their CAM expressions and biological activities. These findings provide us a better the observation that F3 glycopolysaccharides indeed possesses anti-angiogenic and immune-modulating functions and promotes hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell homing for better human tissue protection, reducing disease progression and health.


A Ganoderma lucidum oligoszacharid és peptid-glikánja aktiválja az immunválaszt az emberi mononukleáris sejtekben.

forr√°s: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22364151


2014-02-18 10:06:55


A Ganoderma lucidum poliszacaharidok savval aktiv√°lt t√∂red√©kei/frakci√≥i (GLPS) √©s amelyeket Smith-degrad√°ci√≥val kaptunk, m√©ret-kiz√°r√°sos kromatogr√°fisan szepar√°ltunk k√©t fŇĎ, v√≠zben oldhat√≥ frakci√≥ra: peptid-glik√°nokra (GLPS-SF1) √©s oligoszacharidokra (GLPS-SF2). Mindk√©t frakci√≥ CD69-et v√°ltott ki az emberi perif√©ri√°s v√©r mononukle√°ris sejtjeiben (hPB-MNCs), √©s ezek k√ľl√∂nb√∂zŇĎ immunmodul√°l√≥ tulajdons√°gokat jeleztek. A GLPS-SF1, melynek molekulas√ļlya megk√∂zel√≠tŇĎleg 20 kDa heterog√©n peptid-glik√°nok voltak, melyek gl√ľk√≥zb√≥l/mann√≥zb√≥l (4:1) tevŇĎdtek √∂ssze, √©s amelyek biol√≥giai aktivit√°st mutattak ki a Th1 citokinekkel IL-12, IL-2, TNF-őĪ, √©s az IFN-ő≥ in hPB-MNCs-ben, valamint stimul√°lt√°k a makrof√°g (fal√≥sejtes) citokin expresszi√≥t a Toll-szerŇĪ receptoron kereszt√ľl 4 (TLR4) jelz√©s √ļtj√°n. A GLPS-SF2 eset√©ben t√∂bb kilodaltonos molekulas√ļlyn√°l, annak cukor szekvenci√°ja t√∂meg spektrometri√°san (MS) volt megvil√°gos√≠tva, valamint sejtm√°gneses rezonanci√°s (NMR) spektroszk√≥pi√°val [-őĪ-1,4-Glc-(ő≤-1,4-GlcA)(3)-](n). Ez az oligoszacharid, mely specifikus immun tulajdons√°gokat mutatott ki alacsony monocita indukci√≥val, erŇĎsen stimul√°lta a sejtaktiv√°ci√≥t √©s sejtszaporod√°st az NK √©s T sejtekben. Ez az oligoszacharid, melyet G. lucidum polysacharidokb√≥l izol√°lt√°k belsŇĎ gl√ľk√≥zsavakkal/ gl√ľk√≥z ism√©tlŇĎ egys√©ggel 3:1ar√°nyban, lehet felelŇĎs az NK √©s T sejtek akt√≠v stimul√°l√°s√°√©rt.


A Lingzhi vagy Reishi gy√≥gygomb√°k Ganoderma lucidum tesztje (magasabb Bazidiomycetes): egy keserŇĪ gombaf√©le, melynek csod√°latosan j√≥t√©kony hat√°sa van az eg√©szs√©gre.

forr√°s: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23557365


2014-02-18 10:03:26


A Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) arr√≥l ismert, hogy egy keserŇĪ gombaf√©le, amelynek csod√°latosan j√≥t√©kony hat√°sa van az eg√©szs√©gre. Azok a hat√≥anyagok, amelyeket ez a gomba tartalmaz, magukban foglalj√°k a poliszacharidokat, √©trendi rostokat, oligoszacharidokat, triterpenoidokat, peptideket √©s feh√©rj√©ket, alkoholokat √©s fenolokat, √°sv√°nyi elemeket (mint pl. a cink, r√©z, j√≥d, szel√©nium √©s vas), vitaminokat √©s aminosavakat. A G. lucidum gomb√°ban tal√°lhat√≥ bioakt√≠v komponenseknek sz√°mos, eg√©szs√©gre j√≥t√©kony hat√°sa van, √≠gy kezelni lehet vele olyan betegs√©geket, mint a m√°jbetegs√©g, kr√≥nikus m√°jgyullad√°s, vesegyullad√°s, magas v√©rnyom√°s, hiperglik√©mia, arthritis, neuraszt√©nia, √°lmatlans√°g, l√©gcsŇĎhurut, asztma, gyomorfek√©lyek, agy√©relmeszesed√©s, leukop√©nia, cukorbetegs√©g, anorexia √©s r√°k. A t√∂bb k√∂tetnyi el√©rhetŇĎ szakirodalom ellen√©re a G. lucidum gomb√°t immunerŇĎs√≠tŇĎk√©nt haszn√°lj√°k leggyakrabban √©s t√°pl√°l√©k-kieg√©sz√≠tŇĎk√©nt, nem ter√°piaszerŇĪen. Ez a tanulm√°ny a G. lucidum lehets√©ges gy√≥gy√°szati lehetŇĎs√©geit vizsg√°lja, hogy fel lehessen h√≠vni a tud√≥s k√∂z√∂ss√©gek figyelm√©t annak m√©rlegel√©s√©re, hogyan lehetne alkalmazni a gomb√°t gy√≥gy√°szatilag, ahol csak √©rdemes √©s lehets√©ges.


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