Plant seeds have gained interest for their health benefits due to their fatty acid content. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary consumption of milled sesame/pumpkin/flax seed mixture on glycemic control, serum lipids, phospholipid fatty acid status, and inflammatory factors in patients on hemodialysis.
Thirty patients with well nutrition status (18 male, 12 female) were enrolled in the study. Participants consumed 30 g of milled sesame/pumpkin/flax (6 g/6 g/18 g, resp.) seeds mixture added to their habitual diet.
Total n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and levels of linoleic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic (DGLA), arachidonic, alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid were increased after 12 weeks of supplementation. A significant decrease of the serum triglyceride level (P < 0.001), glucose, insulin, calculated IR HOMA (P < 0.05), and inflammatory markers (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and hs-CRP, P < 0.001) was observed after seed mixture treatment. The serum levels of CRP and TNF-alpha negative correlate with ALA, DHA, and DGLA.
Results of this study indicated that dietary milled sesame/pumpkin/flax seed mixture added to a habitual diet lowered triglyceride and CRP, TNF-alpha, IL-6 levels, affect glycemic control and improved fatty acid profile and pruritus symptoms in hemodialysis patients.
Colloidal silver is an alternative medicine consisting of silver particles suspended in water. After using this solution as a nasal spray, the symptoms of a previously recalcitrant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-infected chronic rhinosinusitis patient were observed to have improved markedly. The aim of this study was to determine whether colloidal silver has any direct bactericidal effects on these biofilms in vitro.
S. aureus biofilms were grown from the ATCC 25923 reference strain on Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) device pegs, and treated with colloidal silver. Concentrations tested ranged from 10 to 150 μL colloidal silver diluted to 200 μL with sterile water in 50 μL cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) broth. Control pegs were exposed to equivalent volumes of CSF broth and sterile water. The sample size was 4 biomass values per treatment or control group. Confocal scanning laser microscopy and COMSTAT software were used to quantify biofilms 24 hours after treatment.
Significant differences from control were found for all concentrations tested bar the lowest of 10 μL colloidal silver in 200 μL. At 20 μL colloidal silver, the reduction in biomass was 98.9% (mean difference between control and treatment = -4.0317 μm(3) /μm(2) , p < 0.0001). A maximum biomass reduction of 99.8% was reached at both 100 and 150 μL colloidal silver (mean differences = -4.0681 and -4.0675μm(3) /μm(2) , respectively, p < 0.0001).
Colloidal silver directly attenuates in vitro S. aureus biofilms.
AIM:Survival after cardiac arrest (CA) is limited by the profound neurologic insult from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Therapeutic options are limited. Previous data suggest a benefit of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) in post-arrest patients. We hypothesized that plasma CoQ(10) levels would be low after CA and associated with poorer outcomes.
METHODS: Prospective observational study of post-arrest patients presenting to a tertiary care center. CoQ(10) levels were drawn 24h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and compared to healthy controls. Levels of inflammatory cytokines and biomarkers were analyzed. Primary endpoints were survival to discharge and neurologic status at time of discharge.
RESULTS:23 CA subjects and 16 healthy controls were enrolled. CoQ(10) levels in CA patients (0.28 μmol L(-1), inter-quartile range (IQR): 0.22-0.39) were significantly lower than in controls (0.75 μmol L(-1), IQR: 0.61-1.08, p<0.0001). The mean CoQ(10) level in CA patients who died was significantly lower than in those who survived (0.27 vs 0.47 μmol L(-1), p = 0.007). There was a significant difference in median CoQ(10) level between patients with a good vs poor neurological outcome (0.49 μmol L(-1), IQR: 0.30-0.67 vs 0.27 μmol L(-1), IQR: 0.21-0.30, p = 0.02). CoQ(10) was a statistically significant predictor of poor neurologic outcome (adjusted p = 0.02) and in-hospital mortality (adjusted p = 0.026).
CONCLUSION:CoQ(10) levels are low in human subjects with ROSC after cardiac arrest as compared to healthy controls. CoQ(10) levels were lower in those who died, as well as in those with a poor neurologic outcome.
Myocardial ischemia (MI) remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Angiogenic therapy with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a promising strategy to overcome hypoxia and its consequences. However, from the clinical data it is clear that fulfillment of the potential of VEGF warrants a better delivery strategy. On the other hand, the compelling evidences of the role of oxidative stress in diseases like MI encourage the use of antioxidant agents. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) due to its role in the electron transport chain in the mitochondria seems to be a good candidate to manage MI but is associated with poor biopharmaceutical properties seeking better delivery approaches. The female Sprague Dawley rats were induced MI and were followed up with VEGF microparticles intramyocardially and CoQ10 nanoparticles orally or their combination with appropriate controls. Cardiac function was assessed by measuring ejection fraction before and after three months of therapy. Results demonstrate significant improvement in the ejection fraction after three months with both treatment forms individually; however the combination therapy failed to offer any synergism. In conclusion, VEGF microparticles and CoQ10 nanoparticles can be considered as promising strategies for managing MI.
Despite recent advances in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), cardioplegic cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are still associated with myocardial injury. Accordingly, the efforts have been made lately to improve the outcome of CPB by glucose-insulin-potassium, adenosine, Ca(2+)-channel antagonists, L-arginine, N-acetylcysteine, coenzyme Q10, diazoxide, Na+/H+ exchange inhibitors, but with an unequal results. Since omega-3 polyunsatutated fatty acids (PUFAs) have shown remarkable cardioprotection in preclinical researches, the aim of our study was to check their effects in prevention of ischemia reperfusion injury in patients with CPB.
This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed with parallel groups. The patients undergoing elective CABG were randomized to receive preoperative intravenous omega-3 PUFAs infusion (n = 20) or the same volume of 0.9% saline solution infusion (n = 20). Blood samples were collected simultaneously from the radial artery and the coronary sinus before starting CPB and at 10, 20 and 30 min after the release of the aortic cross clamp. Lactate extraction/excretion and myocardial oxygen extraction were calculated and compared between the two groups. The levels of troponin I (TnT) and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) were determined before starting CPB and 4 and 24 h postoperatively.
Demographic and operative characteristics, including CPB and aortic cross-clamp time, were similar between the two groups of patients. The level of lactate extraction 10 and 20 min after aortic cross-clamp time has shown negative values in the control group, but positive values in the PUFAs group with statistically significant differences (-19.6% vs 7.9%; p < 0.0001 and -19.9% vs 8.2%; p < 0.0008, respectively). The level of lactate extraction 30 minutes after reperfusion was not statistically different between the two groups (6.9% vs 4.2%; p < 0.54). Oxygen extraction in the PUFAs group was statistically significantly higher compared to the control group after 10, 20 and 30 min of reperfusion (35.5% vs 50.4%, p < 0.0004; 25.8 % vs 48.7%, p < 0.0001 and 25.8% vs 45.6%, p < 0.0002, respectively). The level of TnT, 4 and 24 h after CPB, was significantly higher in the control group compared to PUFAs group, with statistically significant differences (11.4 vs 6.6, p < 0.009 and 12.7 vs 5.9, p < 0.008, respectively). The level of CK-MB, 4 h after CPB, was significantly higher in the control group compared to PUFAs group (61.9 vs 37.7, p < 0.008), but its level, 24 h after CPB, was not statistically different between the two groups (58.9 vs 40.6, p < 0.051).
Treatment with omega-3 PUFAs administered preoperatively promoted early metabolic recovery of the heart after elective CABG and improved myocardial protection. This study showed that omega-3 emulsion should not be considered only as a nutritional supplement but also as a clinically safe and potent cardioprotective adjunct during CPB.